Archive for the ‘Assignment 5’ Category

We feel that making questions about each of the chapters that we have learned so far is a very good way of better understanding the concepts that are found in the book. By doing this we learn much more than we normally would, because in order to prepare the questions we need to read the book carefully and try to better understand all the different concepts, graphs and information found in the book.

As the title suggests the first chapter serves as some kind of an introduction. It defines such terms as environment and environmental science and illustrates certain environmental issues and the outcomes of human impact on the nature. It also presents one of the central terms that we have repeatedly used throughout the semester: the concept of sustainability.

1)      Which term characterizes the human impact on the environment?

       a)      Natural footstep

       b)      Environmental imprint

       c)       Ecological footprint

       d)      Collective fingerprint

2)      What is a paradigm?

                a)      A dominant view

               b)      An important scientific discovery

               c)       Sustainable use of resources

                d)      The process of analyzing quantitative data

3)      Which is not a part of the scientific method?

               a)      Questions

               b)      Peer reviews

               c)       Observations

              d)      Predictions

4)      People who predict catastrophic outcomes because of the inappropriate use of resources are called

           a)      Cornucopians

           b)      Darwinists

           c)       Environmentalists

           d)      Cassandras

5)      What is the widely-accepted explanation of cause and effect relationships that is backed up with valid evidence called?

          a)      Hypothesis

         b)      Axiom

         c)       Theory

        d)      Supposition

6)      The negative human impact on the environment might become the reason of the seventh mass extinction event.

           a)      True

           b)      False

7)      The use of resources in a way that satisfies our needs at the same time keeping them available for the future generations is called sustainable development.

          a)      True

          b)      False

8)      Match:

 

        I.            All the living and non-living things that surround us                                         

      II.            The study of how the natural world works and how the environment and humans influence each other

    III.            Social movement with a purpose to of protecting the natural world

    IV.            The global deficit of resources

      V.            The testing of the validity of a prediction or a hypothesis

a)      Environmentalism

b)      Experiment

c)       Ecological overshoot

d)      Environment

e)      Environmental science

9)      Briefly describe the scientific method(max:250 words)

10)   Discuss the improper use of natural resources and illustrate the negative outcomes we might face.

The second chapter is mainly focused on the basic knowledge about chemistry and discusses and illustrates the types of energy and energy flow. Various theories of the origin of life and explanations of the photosynthesis and cellular respiration were also the part of this chapter.

1)      What does an atom consist of?

          a)      Electrons

          b)      Protons and neutrons

          c)       All of the above

          d)      None of the above

2)      Which of the following is Glucose (C6H12O6) classified to?

          a)      Proteins

          b)      Carbohydrates

          c)       Nucleic Acids

          d)      Amino Acids

3)      Which are the two major forms of energy?

         a)      Potential and kinetic

         b)      Impending and mechanic

         c)       Chemical and electric

         d)      Potential and stimulating

4)      How is the process of using the chemical energy created during photosynthesis called?

          a)      Chemical inhalation

          b)      Compound exhalation

          c)       Cellular respiration

          d)      None of the above

5)      During photosynthesis autotrophs turn light energy into—-

         a)      Heat

         b)      Water

         c)       Kinetic energy

         d)      Chemical energy

6)      There are more than 92 elements recognized by the chemists.

         a)      True

         b)      False

7)      Earlier organisms had more complex structure and bigger body mass. However, during time they adapted to the surrounding environment and became smaller and simpler.

        a)      True

        b)      False

8)      Match

 

        I.            Atoms of the same element with differing numbers of neutrons                                         

      II.            Organisms that get energy from feeding themselves

    III.            The study of Earth’s physical features, processes and history

    IV.            The smallest units maintaining the chemical properties of an element

      V.            DNA and RNA

a)      Heterotrophs

b)      Atoms

c)       Isotopes

d)      Nucleic Acids

e)      Geology

9)      Explain the second law of thermodynamics.(max:150 words)

10)   Differentiate between photosynthesis and cellular respiration and demonstrate each process.(max:350 words).

This chapter explains the process of natural selection, describes evolution, biodiversity, extinction, ecological organizations and characteristics of population growth. It also allows us understand some fundamental concepts such as carrying capacity, limiting factors, et

1.     Speciation is—-

a.       The loss of a certain species

b.      The process by which new species are generated

c.       The physical separation of a certain species

d.      The tendency of organisms to produce more offspring than can survive

2.     Endemic species—

a.       Are only found in a particular place in the planet

b.      Are the same species found in many places in the planet

c.       Are species that no longer exist

d.      Do not face the risk of extinction

3.     Ecology is—

a.       Social movement dedicated to protecting the environment

b.      The study of how the natural world works and how the environment and humans influence each other

c.       The study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environments.

d.      The study of Earth’s physical features

4.     Limiting factors that restrain population growth are

a.       Biological

b.      Physical

c.       Chemical

d.      All of the above

5.     Extinction is—

a.       The formation of a new species in the planet

b.      The process of geographical isolations of populations

c.       The disappearance of a species from Earth

d.      The process by which the number of species within a population increases rapidly

6.     Immigration is the departure of individuals from a population.

a.       True

b.      False

7.   

                                                                                                                                            Source:(1)

  The picture above represents the uniform type of population distribution.

a.       True

b.      False

8.        Match:

        I.            Species                                         

      II.            Population

    III.            Biological evolution

    IV.            Natural Selection

      V.            Biodiversity

 

 a)      The variety of life across all levels of biological organization.

b)      An organism, population or a group of populations that share certain characteristics and freely breed with one another

c)       The process by which certain essential traits are passed on to future generations, thus altering the genetic makeup  of populations through time

d)      Genetic change in populations of organisms across generations

e)      A group of individuals of a particular species living in the same area

 

9.

                                                                                                            Source:(2)

What does the graph above represent? Briefly describe each type.(max:150 words)

10. Classify the types of speciation and explain each one briefly.(max:250 words)

The fourth chapter illustrates the types of biomes, the interactions of species inside a biome, the food chain of species and their energy levels. Moreover, it teaches us how to recognize the different biomes according to their characteristics.

1)      Herbivores are:

  1. Producers
  2. Primary consumers
  3. Secondary consumers
  4. Tertiary consumers

2)      Amensalism is:

  1. A relationship in which one organism is harmed and the other is unaffected.
  2. A relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected.
  3. A relationship in which both organisms benefit.
  4. None of the above

 

3)      Species that arrive first and colonize the new substrate are called:

  1. Resident
  2. Pioneer
  3. Keystone
  4. Endemic

4)      The geographical areas that are characterized with constant temperatures and high precipitation are called:

  1. Tropical rainforest
  2. Tropical dry forest
  3. Tundra
  4. Savanna

5)      Permafrost is:

  1. Cold water
  2. Permanently frozen soil
  3. A biome
  4. Acidic soil

6)      Detritivores and decomposers consume non-living organic matter.

  1. True
  2. False

7)      A species that has strong or wide-reaching impact far out of proportion to its abundance is called a keystone species.

  1. True
  2. False

8)       Match

        I.            Predation                                         

      II.            Mutualism

    III.            Commensalism

    IV.            Coevolution

      V.            Parasitism

a)      The relationship in which one organism depends on another for nourishment or other benefits.

b)      Long-term reciprocal process in which two or more types of organisms repeatedly respond through natural selection to the other’s adaptations

c)       The process by which individuals of one species hunt, capture, kill, and consume individuals of another species.

d)      The relationship in which two or more species benefit from interaction with one another

e)      The process through which one species benefits and the other is unaffected.

 

9)      Interpret the graph and identify the biome.(max:250 words)

                                                                                                                      Source:(3)

10)Discuss how invasive species pose threats to community stability.(max:250 words)

This chapter discusses the concepts of economic growth, well-being, and sustainability. It also describes the relations between ethics and represents the principles of various types of economics.

1)      The economics which maintains that economic growth may be unsustainable if we do not reduce population growth and make resource use far more efficient is known as:

  1. Classical economics
  2. Neoclassical economics
  3. Environmental economics
  4. centrally planned economics

2)      The total monetary value of final goods and services a country produces each year is known as:

  1. GPI
  2. GDP
  3. GNP
  4. GPS

 

3)      What type of view argues that the patriarchal structure of society, which traditionally grants more power and prestige to men that to women, is a root cause of social and environmental problems?  

  1. Ecofeminism
  2. Ecomasculism
  3. Ecocentrism
  4. Biocentrism

4)      A person’s or group’s beliefs about the meaning, purpose, operation and essence of the world is known as:

  1. Culture
  2. Worldview
  3. Environmental justice
  4. Sustainability

5)      Which type of economics examines the psychological factors underlying consumer choices?

  1. Conventional
  2. 

  3. Environmental
  4. Neoclassical
  5. Mixed

6)      Conservation holds that we should protect the natural environment in a pristine, unaltered state.

  1. True
  2. False

7)      Externalities are costs or benefits that affect people other than the buyer or seller.

  1. True
  2. False

8)       Match

        I.            Ethics                                   

      II.            Utilitarian principle

    III.            Environmental justice

    IV.            Economics

      V.            Affluenza

a)      Something is right when it produces the greatest practical benefits for the most people.

b)      Consumption and material affluence often fail to bring people contentment.

c)       The study of good and bad, of right and wrong.

d)      The fair and equitable treatment of all people with respect to environmental policy and practice, regardless of their income, race or ethnicity.

e)      The study of how people decide to use potentially scarce resources to provide goods and services in the face of demand for them.

 

9)      Describe anthropocentrism, biocentrism and ecocentrism and state which one you belong to. (max:350 words)

10)   Interpret your perception of Adam Smith’s “Invisible hand” and express your opinion about it . (max:350 words)

After preparing these questions we feel that we have learned a lot more as this process took a lot of time and effort, but in the end was worth it as we are now more aware of the different ecological concepts and processes that go on in the world. This has helped us a lot, but we think that anyone who is able to answer these questions knows the content of the book and is well prepared.

References:

1)Bellarmine, “Measuring Spatial Distribution”,N.d, Retrieved March 28,2011 from http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/RootWeb/Measuring%20Spatial%20Distribution.htm

2)Britannica, “Survivorship curve” (2011). Retrieved 28 March,2011 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/575473/survivorship-curve

3)Worldwide Bioclimatic Classification System,N.d, “Climate Diagram”. Retrieved March 28,2011 from http://www.globalbioclimatics.org/plot/eg-el-to.htm

Textbook: Withgott, Jay , and Scott Brennan. Environment The Science Behind the Stories. Fourth Edition ed. San Francisco: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2011. Print.

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